Basic introduction to Saint Bernard.
The saying that he led Bonaparte’s army through the mountain pass in 1800 made this dog famous in Europe throughout the 19th century. The legendary dog ”Barry” has become a typical rescue dog. The direct ancestor of Saint Bernard is a large farm dog that is more common in this area. After several generations of breeding according to established standards, this dog was bred into its current breed. Henry Schmichel, from Holligan near Bern, was the first to publish a pedigree file for his dog in 1867. In February 1884, the registration of Swiss pedigreed dogs began. The first registered Saint Bernard is “Leon”, and the next 28 registered are also related to Saint Bernard. On March 15, 1884, the Swiss Saint Bernard Club was established in Basel. At the International Dog Conference on June 2, 1887, Saint Bernard was officially recognized as a breed in Switzerland, and the conference also issued a breed standard as a constraint. Since then, Saint Bernard has been considered the national dog of Switzerland.
The species distribution of Saint Bernard
Saint Bernard is named after the Abbey of Saint Bernard in the Alps. In 980, Saint Bernard was famous for guarding travelers who crossed dangerous Alpine trails. It is a pity that the initial chronicle cannot be verified either. In the 18th century, the priests of the monastery kept the dog as a guide in the dangerous mountains, searching for and awakening the lost. Saint Bernard is a short-haired breed. In order to prevent inbreeding, the Scottish breed was added to produce a furry breed. A Saint Bernard called “Black Monsoon”, once saved 40 people’s lives, made the greatest achievement, and died in 1814.
Before 1830, all Saint Bernards were short-haired. At first it was thought that the long-haired Saint Bernard was better able to withstand the severe cold of the hospice, but unfortunately, ice can freeze on the long hair, and this dog is not suitable for ambulance. After discovering this fact, the monks gave the long-haired Saint Bernard as a gift to their friends, leaving only the short-haired Saint Bernard.
As early as 1810, Britain imported some dogs from the almshouse to cross with their Mastiff Mastiff. At that time, the British called this type of dog “secred dogs”. Around 1828, this type of dog was used in Germany. The name is “alpen dog”. In 1833, the author Daniel Wilson named this dog Saint Bernard for the first time, but it was not until 1965 that the name clearly appeared, and in 1980 the name was officially confirmed as the name of this dog.
Physiological indicators of Saint Bernard
Saint Bernard’s height: male Saint Bernard’s shoulder height is 27.6-35.5 inches (70.0-90.0 cm), female Saint Bernard’s shoulder height is 25.6-31.5 inches (65.0-80.0 cm)
Saint Bernard’s weight range: male Saint Bernard weighs 110.2-200.7 lbs (50.0-91.0 kg), female Saint Bernard weighs 110.2-200.7 lbs (50.0-91.0 kg)
Saint Bernard’s head (head, face, eyes, ears, nose, mouth, muzzle, jaw, teeth)
Head: Powerful, prominent, and expressive. Skull: Strong, broad, slightly rounded when looking sideways and forward. When alert, the ears will stand up, the top of the skull will form a straight line, and it will slowly tilt towards the well-developed, strong cheek bones on both sides. It drops sharply from the forehead to the muzzle. The occipital bones are well developed and the eye ridges are strong. The anterior depression from the forehead is clearly developed and reaches the middle of the skull. The skin on the forehead forms fine folds on the eyes and sags forward. When he concentrates, these wrinkles are more obvious; in other cases, they are not so obvious. Stop: Very obvious. Nose: black, wide, square. The nostrils are large. Muzzle: wide. The bridge of the nose is straight and slightly sunken. Lips: There are dark spots on the lips. The sagging part of the upper jaw is well developed, firm and not excessively sagging, forming a wide curve towards the nose. The corners of the mouth are clear. Jaw/Teeth: The upper and lower jaws are strong, wide and equal in length. The scissor bite or forceps bite is well developed, neat and complete. Close to the lower protruding mouth, there should be no gap between the upper and lower front teeth. Eyes: Medium size. The color changes from dark brown to walnut. Moderately sunken, friendly eyes. It is best to tighten the eyelids naturally. There is a small fold on the lower part of the eyelid, the third eyelid is faintly visible, and a small fold on the upper eyelid is also allowed. The eye frame is completely colored. Ears: Medium size, high and wide. The helix is well developed. Easy to twists and turns, triangle, round ear tips. The back edge is slightly straight, and the front edge is close to the cheek.
Saint Bernard’s torso (neck, chest, ribs, waist and back, front of the torso, skin)
Body: Strong and well-proportioned, well muscled. Shoulder: clear structure. Back: wide, strong and sturdy. The top line is straight and flat above the waist. Hips: Long, almost non-inclined, and natural joint with the root of the tail. Chest: The chest is deep and the ribs expand naturally, but not barrel-shaped. Does not protrude below the elbow line. Abdomen: Slightly protrude toward the back
Saint Bernard’s limbs (front drive, shoulders, upper limbs, bony joints, bony joints, paws, hindquarters, thighs, hock joints, joints and hock nails)
Forequarters: When looking forward, the legs are straight and parallel. Separate properly when standing. Shoulder: The shoulder blades are flat, muscular, and naturally engage with the chest. Upper arm: Longer than the scapula. The angle between the upper arm and the shoulder blade is not too blunt. Elbow: Close to the body. Forearm: Straight, strong bones, lean muscle tissue.