Dog Diseases – Brucellosis
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella. After the dogs are infected, most of them show recessive infection and lack obvious clinical symptoms. Brucella has strong resistance and can survive for a long time in soil, water, and milk. It can be killed by heating at 100°C for a few minutes. Resistance to disinfectants is also weak. 1% lysol, 2% formalin, 5% lime emulsion, etc. can kill the bacteria within a few minutes. Brucella mainly exists in the reproductive organs of pregnant females, and is excreted with the fetus, fetal fluid, vaginal secretions and milk during childbirth or abortion. There are also a large number of pathogenic bacteria in the semen of sick male animals, which can often be transmitted with breeding. Therefore, sick animals are the source of infection of this disease. Brucella is very contagious. It can not only invade the body through damaged skin and mucous membranes, but also through normal skin and mucous membranes. There are also many ways of transmission. In addition to skin and mucous membrane infections, it can also be infected through the digestive tract, reproductive tract, and respiratory tract. Therefore, it has brought greater difficulties to epidemic prevention.
In addition to dogs, cattle, sheep, pigs and humans can be infected, especially brucellosis in cattle and sheep, which is often the main source of infection for dogs and other animals.
(1) Epidemic characteristics Brucellosis in dogs is usually related to contact with sick cattle, sick sheep, and sick dogs. The spread of the disease is closely related to mating, eating contaminated food or contact with aborted fetuses, placenta and vaginal secretions, so it mostly occurs in shepherd dogs.
(2) Clinical features Pregnant female dogs usually have a miscarriage without any prodromal symptoms in the late pregnancy, and can also have miscarriage and systemic lymphadenopathy in the early pregnancy. The female dog discharges secretions from the vagina for a long time after abortion. Most aborted fetuses are stillborn and some are alive, but often die within hours or days. Pneumonia, endocarditis and hepatitis can be seen in infected fetuses. Male dogs often suffer from epididymitis, orchitis, testicular atrophy, prostatitis and scrotal dermatitis. Dogs suffering from epididymitis often show mental restlessness, licking the skin of the scrotum, resulting in severe ulcers. However, most sick dogs lack obvious clinical symptoms, especially young dogs and unpregnant dogs. Therefore, it is difficult to make a diagnosis based solely on clinical symptoms, and it must rely on the isolation of pathogenic bacteria and serological tests. The aborted fetus, blood, urine, vaginal secretions, semen and milk can be submitted for examination.
First, strengthen the quarantine of dogs, especially in epidemic areas. Blood should be collected twice a year for serum agglutination tests.
Second, for aborted dogs, the aborted fetus or placenta, serum and other disease materials should be taken for examination, and bacterial isolation and culture and serum agglutination test should be carried out. To find out the cause of miscarriage.
Third, cured dogs can no longer be kept for breeding. In order to prevent infection of humans and other dogs, sick dogs should be eliminated.
Fourth, kennels, sports grounds, and feeding management equipment contaminated by sick dogs can be thoroughly disinfected with 10% lime milk, 2% to 5% bleaching powder solution or hot alkaline water. Properly disinfect or bury the aborted fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid, etc.
Fifth, while doing a good job in the prevention and control of canine brucellosis, we should strengthen the quarantine and epidemic prevention of human (breeder, owner) brucellosis.