Dog Diseases – Canine Babesia Canis
Canine Babesia Canis is a blood protozoal disease transmitted by Ixodes ticks. There are 3 kinds of pathogens that cause this disease. It is a serious hazard to elite breed dogs, especially military, police dogs and hunting dogs.
Pathogen and life history
The body of Babesia Canis is very small. They are mostly located at the edge or part of the center of red blood cells, and are ring-shaped, elliptical, round-pointed, and small-rod-shaped. Occasionally, a cruciform tetraspider and a pair of small pear seed-shaped worms can be seen. There can be 1 to 13 parasites in one red blood cell, and 1 to 2 parasites are more common.
The transmission vectors of Babesia Canis are Haemaphysalis longhorned tick, Rhipicephalus falciparum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Spread through the egg or through the metamorphosis process.
(1) Epidemiological investigation Whether there are ticks transmitting the disease in the local area, and whether it is the active season of ticks at that time. Whether the sick dog has a history of being bitten by a tick or has caught a wick on its body.
(2) Clinical symptoms Babesia gibbsiosis often presents a chronic course. The sick dog is depressed, tired of lying down, and shakes during activities. Fever (40～41°C) lasts for 3～5 days, there is a period of normal body temperature for 5～10 days. Irregular intermittent heat type. Progressive anemia, pale conjunctiva and mucous membranes. Reduce or abolish appetite. Obviously wasting. Palpate for splenomegaly. The kidney is enlarged and painful. Urine is yellow to dark brown. Some sick dogs show vomiting. Symptoms such as rhinorrhea and eye discharge.
(3) Laboratory examination takes blood from the ear tip of the sick dog as a smear, and then checks after staining with Ji’s solution. If a typical parasite is found, the diagnosis can be confirmed.
Use artemether, a dose of 7 mg/kg body weight, intramuscular injection. Use once a day for 2 days; or use primaquine phosphate at a dose of 0.8 mg/kg body weight, and concurrently use compound sulfamethoxazine at a dose of 28 mg/kg body weight. Orally, once a day. Use it for two consecutive days; or use Bennier at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight, intramuscularly, once a day for two consecutive days; or use acaprin. 0.5 mg/kg body weight, intramuscular injection, once a day for two consecutive days. At the same time, symptomatic treatment: massive blood transfusion to fight anemia, and application of broad-spectrum antibiotics to prevent secondary or concurrent infections. Supplement a lot of body fluids, sugars and vitamins. Prevent severe dehydration and exhaustion.
First, in the epidemic area, we must do a good job of preventing ticks and eliminating ticks on dogs. Insecticides can be used, such as a solution of deltamethrin at a concentration of 25 mg/L, spray the dog body once every 7 to 10 days.
Second, early detection and early diagnosis of sick dogs should be achieved. Treat early. After the case is found, the therapeutic dose of dimilnazene aceturatecan be used to prevent other healthy dogs.