Dog Diseases – Canine Coccidiosis
Canine Coccidiosis is widely spread in dog groups, especially in kennels with poor environmental hygiene and high-density kennels. Common in hot and humid seasons, mostly in puppies.
Pathogen and life history
The causative agent of Canine Coccidiosis is Isospora, which is parasitic in the epithelial cells of the small intestine and large intestine mucosa of dogs. Its morphological feature is that there are only 2 sporangia in the sporulated oocyst, and each sporangia contains 4 sporangia.
The isospora coccidia oocysts excreted with feces complete sporulation development under suitable external conditions. Dogs become infected after swallowing this sporulated oocyst. After the sporozoite escapes in the small intestine, it penetrates into the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa. Propagation of split body. After 3 generations of schistosome proliferation, it turns into gametogenesis, that is, part of merozoites develop into large gametes, and the other part develops into small gametes. After the large and small gametes mate, they produce zygotes. A thick wall is formed around the zygote, which is called an oocyst, which is excreted with the feces. The incubation period from the ingestion of infectious oocysts to the emergence of a new generation of oocysts in the feces is 9-11 days.
(1) Clinical symptoms 1 to 2 months old puppies have a high incidence, showing growth arrest, weight loss, pale mucous membranes, loss of appetite, mild heat, loose stools mixed with blood and mucus, and some have vomiting symptoms, puppies Died due to extreme exhaustion. Adult dogs often undergo chronic disease, with a course of more than 3 weeks, and can recover spontaneously.
(2) Laboratory examination The saturated saline flotation method can be used to check whether there are a large number of oocysts in the stool, but the diagnosis must be combined with clinical symptoms, otherwise it may only be a hidden infection carrier.
(3) Pathological changes. Catarrhal enteritis or hemorrhagic enteritis appears in the entire small intestine, but it is more common in the ileum, especially in the lower ileum, where the intestinal mucosa is hypertrophy, the mucosal epithelium falls off, and the intestine is filled with dark red mucus. Available sulfa drugs, sulfamethoxine 50 mg/kg body weight, orally for 7 days; sulfamethazine (SM2) 55 mg/kg body weight, plus trimethoprim 10 mg/kg body weight, twice a day Oral for 5 days. Amproline can also be used. It can be added to water or feed at 110-220 mg/kg body weight for 7-12 days. When side effects such as vomiting occur, stop using it. Rehydration can be used for severe dehydration. Vitamin K can be used to treat patients with severe blood in the stool.
Strict hygiene measures can effectively prevent the occurrence of coccidiosis. The bitch can be fed with amproline solution for drug prevention 10 days before delivery.