Dog Diseases – Canine hookworm disease
Canine hookworm disease is a nematode disease that is more common and harmful to dogs. Hookworms live in the small intestine, mainly the duodenum.It is common in warm climate regions, and occurs mostly in summer. Especially small, wet kennels are more likely to occur.
Pathogen and life history
The common pathogens that cause canine hookworm disease are hookworm canine and hookworm.
Ancylostoma caninum is a small yellowish white nematode with its head slightly bent to the dorsal side and a well-developed mouth pouch. There are 3 large teeth on each side of the ventral front edge of the mouth pouch, and each tooth is hooked inward. The males are 10-12 mm long, and the females are 14-16 mm long. The ends of the hookworm are slightly thinner and smaller than the hookworms. There are a half-moon-shaped cutting board on both sides of the ventral front edge of the mouth sac. The males are 5 to 8.5 mm in length, and the females are 7 to 10 mm in length.
Canine hookworm eggs are excreted with feces, under suitable conditions. After 12 to 30 hours, the larvae (rod-shaped larvae) are hatched, and after about 1 week, they decay into infectious larvae (the sheathed filamentous larvae). Dogs are usually infected by mouth. It can also be infected through the skin and oral mucosa. When the larva enters the human host body by mouth, it stays in the intestine and removes the cyst sheath. Gradually develop into adults. When the larva invades through the skin, it burrows into the peripheral blood vessels, migrates to the alveoli and trachea, enters the oral cavity with the sputum, and develops into adults in the small intestine after swallowing. Canine hookworm can also be infected through the placenta and colostrum.
The life history of Ancylostoma canis is similar to that of Ancylostoma canis, but oral infections are more common.
(1) Clinical Symptoms When adult dogs are infected with a small amount of parasites, they do not show symptoms. In puppies or severely infected, the mucous membrane is pale, thin, and the coat is rough and dull, and it is easy to fall off. Loss of appetite, different addiction. Vomiting, digestive disorders, diarrhea and constipation alternate. The stool is bloody or black, and in severe cases it is tarry-like and has a rancid smell. If a large number of larvae penetrate through the skin, the skin becomes inflamed and itchy. Some limbs are swollen, ulcerated later, or there may be erosions at the corners of the mouth. Puppy dogs within 3 weeks of age infected with hookworm in the fetus or colostrum can cause severe anemia, leading to coma and death.
(2) Laboratory examinations can be diagnosed by examining the eggs in the feces using saturated saline flotation.
(1) Sanitation and disinfection Dog hookworm disease occurs mostly in summer, especially in small, humid kennels. Therefore, the kennel must be kept dry, and the feces must be removed in time. The wooden cage can be scalded with boiling water, and the iron part or the ground can be burned with a blowtorch. The movable utensils can be moved outdoors and exposed to the sun to kill the eggs.
(2) Deworming 20% iodonitrophenol injection 10 mg/kg body weight, subcutaneously injected. It is not necessary to fast during the administration, and it will not cause a stress response. Can be used for young dogs. The deworming effect on various hookworms in dogs is close to 100%. The drug is not effective against canine roundworms, whipworms, tapeworms and lung flukes.
In addition, levamisole, sulfenbendazole, mebendazole, pyrantel can also be used to repel worms. For dosage and usage, please refer to “Canine Ascariasis”.
In severe anemia, symptomatic treatment is needed, oral or injection of iron-containing tonics or blood transfusion.