Dog Diseases – Canine parvovirus disease

Dog Diseases – Canine parvovirus disease

Canine parvovirus disease is an acute infectious disease in dogs. Clinically, dogs are mostly characterized by hemorrhagic enteritis or non-suppurative myocarditis. Sometimes the infection rate can be as high as 100%, and the fatality rate is 10% to 50%. The parvoviruses of dogs, cats and mink have certain antigenic correlation. Sick dogs are the main source of infection of this disease. The feces, urine, vomit and saliva of sick dogs contain the highest levels of toxicity. Sick dogs continuously detoxify outwards and infect other healthy dogs. Long-term poisoning in the feces of rehabilitation dogs. Therefore, once the disease occurs in the dog group, it is extremely difficult to completely remove it. In addition to dogs, wolves, foxes, and raccoons can also be naturally infected. The disease is mainly infected through direct or inquisitive contact.

Canine parvovirus is highly resistant to external factors and can survive for 1 hour at 60°C. The virus is still infectious in an acidic or alkaline environment. Viruses on feces and solid pollutants can survive for months to years. In a low temperature environment, its infectivity can be maintained for a long time. 0.5% formalin, 0.5% peracetic acid, 5% to 6% sodium hypochlorite, etc. can be used as disinfectants for the virus.

Diagnosis points

(1) Epidemic characteristics The epidemic of this disease has no obvious seasonality, but it is more common in cold winters. Puppies just after weaning are mostly with myocarditis syndrome, and young dogs are mostly with enteritis syndrome.

(2) Clinical features The disease mainly appears in two clinical forms, namely enteritis type and myocarditis type.

① Enteritis type The incubation period is 7 to 14 days. Generally, vomiting first and then diarrhea, stools are yellow or grayish yellow, containing a lot of mucus and pseudomembrane. Two to three days after the illness, the stool was like tomato juice, mixed with bloodshot eyes, and had a special fishy smell. The sick dog quickly showed signs of dehydration. At this time, the sick dog was depressed, had no appetite, his body temperature rose above 40°C, and his thirst increased. The body temperature of some sick dogs is lower than normal temperature in the later stage. The visible mucosa is pale, the tail and posterior abdomen are often contaminated with feces. In severe cases, the anus is loose and open.

②Myocarditis puppies have difficulty breathing, hyper-palpitations, pale mucous membranes, physical failure, and sudden death.

A preliminary diagnosis can usually be made based on the above-mentioned epidemic characteristics and clinical symptoms. In clinical practice, attention should be paid to observe whether the sick dog has vomiting and diarrhea. If you want to make a further diagnosis, you should take sick dog diarrhea early, use 0.5% porcine red blood cell suspension, mix in proportion in 4c, and observe its agglutination effect on red blood cells. If necessary, stool samples can also be sent to the inspection unit for electron microscopy for diagnosis.

Prevention

First, immunization should be done at ordinary times. Parvovirus disease inactivated vaccines are used in combination with other vaccines.

When using the five-linked attenuated canine vaccine, dogs aged 30 to 90 days should be injected three times, and dogs over 90 days old should be injected twice, with an interval of 2 to 4 weeks. One dose (2 ml) is injected each time, and the booster immunization is performed every six months thereafter. However, the maternal antibodies in the puppies can affect the immune effect of the vaccine. The canine five-linked vaccine developed by the People’s Liberation Army University of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, in which the parvovirus was isolated from the raccoon dog. It has strong resistance to the maternal antibodies in the puppies, and there is no immune interference phenomenon, therefore. Can be immunized according to the immunization program of canine distemper.

Second, after the outbreak of this disease in dogs, they should be isolated in time. For kennels and feeding equipment, use 2% to 4% caustic soda, 1% formalin, 0.5% peracetic acid or 5% to 6% sodium hypochlorite repeatedly. disinfect. For dogs with no cure. They should be culled as soon as possible and burned and buried deeply.

Third, the treatment of sick dogs. The course of myocarditis-type dogs is rapid and deteriorates rapidly. He often died before treatment.

If dogs with enteritis type can be treated promptly and reasonably, the mortality rate can be significantly reduced. In the early stage of the disease, while applying high immunity serum.

Measures such as strengthening the heart, rehydrating fluids, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-shock and intensive care can increase the cure rate.

(1) Early use of immune serum can improve the efficacy. Once the disease is diagnosed in the dog group, high immunity serum or convalescent dog serum should be applied to other sick do

gs immediately. The dosage of hyperimmune serum is 0.5-1 ml/kg body weight, and the serum of rehabilitation dogs is 0.5-2 ml/kg body weight, for 3 to 5 days. Such as high immune serum and other antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs at the same time, can improve the efficacy.

(2) Rehydration-sick dogs often die from dehydration, so rehydration is the main measure for the treatment of this disease. Should be based on the dog’s degree of dehydration and general condition. Determine the required ingredients and the amount of rehydration, the general intravenous fluid volume is 60 ml/kg body weight.

①Intravenous rehydration: 5-40 ml of 25% glucose solution, 2-10 ml of vitamin C, 5-20 ml of energy mixture, one slow intravenous drip, 1 to 2 times a day. 50~500 ml of 5% sugar saline, 2~10 ml of vitamin C, 0.5~2 ml of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) injection, 50~100 ml of 5% sodium bicarbonate, antibiotics, etc., slow intravenous drip once, twice /day.

Strictly control the amount and speed of the infusion during the infusion, and pay attention to the function of the heart, otherwise it is easy to cause treatment failure.

When the sick dog shows severe vomiting and diarrhea, it is necessary to correct dehydration, electrolyte imbalance and acid-base balance. You can inject 50-500 ml of Ringer’s lactate solution, 5-40 ml of 25% glucose solution, and anisodamine hydrochloride injection. 3 to 1 ml, 2 times a day.

②Oral rehydration method: When the sick dog is not eating, the heart rate is accelerated, if there is no vomiting, or has appetite or drinking, oral rehydration salts can be given: sodium chloride 3.5 g, sodium bicarbonate 2.5 g, potassium chloride 1 .5 grams, 20 grams of glucose, and 1,000 milliliters of water. Dogs are allowed to drink freely or deep enema.

③Peritoneal cavity rehydration If it is difficult to inject intravenously in the sick dog, peritoneal cavity rehydration is feasible, and the dosage is 70 ml/kg body weight.

(3) Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory. Various broad-spectrum antibiotics can be used, but do not use it for a long time to prevent the normal intestinal flora from imbalance. Instead, it delays the recovery of intestinal digestive function. Kangduling freeze-dried powder and Antitoxin No. 1 injection have a good effect on this disease. Generally, for dogs under 15 kg, lyophilized powder is injected intravenously with 1 ampoule per day, and for dogs over 15 kg, 2 ampoules per day. At the same time, use No. 1 injection, 10-30 ml/day.

(4) For patients with severe antiemetics and vomiting, 0.3 to 2 ml of Aimoer and mettoline (metoclopramide) can be injected intramuscularly.

(5) Dexamethasone (flumetasone) 5~15 mg can be injected intramuscularly for patients with obvious anti-shock shock symptoms. Or anisodamine hydrochloride injection o. 3 to 1 ml.

(6) Strengthen nursing care. Keep warm dogs. During diarrhea, stop feeding high-protein and high-fat feeds such as milk, eggs, and meat, and give digestible feeds to reduce gastrointestinal burden and improve the cure rate.

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