Dog Diseases – Canine tapeworm disease
Canine tapeworm disease parasitizes many types of tapeworms in the small intestine of dogs. Not only are they harmful to the dog’s health in the adult stage, but also in the larval stage, other domestic animals or humans are used as intermediate hosts, which seriously endanger the health of domestic animals and humans. Several main tapeworms are now introduced as follows.
Pathogen and life history
(1) Canine tapeworm (Taenia canis, tapeworm) The body is light red, 10-50 cm long. Mature body segments are 7 mm long, 2 to 3 mm wide, long ovoid, and look like cucumber seeds. Each mature segment contains two sets of male and female reproductive organs, and the reproductive holes are opened in the central part on both sides of the somite. Fleas and dog lice are intermediate hosts of canine tapeworms, which develop into cysticercus-like cysts in their bodies. The final host is infected by swallowing fleas or lice containing cysticercus, which develop into adults in the small intestine after about 3 weeks.
(2) The tapeworm (Centomyces midline) has a body length of 30 to 250 cm, with a width of 3 mm at its widest point. The mature segments are nearly square, each segment has a set of reproductive organs, and the uterus is located in the center of the segments and is longitudinally long sac-shaped. Therefore, the central part of the chain of this species of tapeworm seems to have a longitudinal line running through it. It is known that the midline tapeworm needs two intermediate hosts. The first intermediate host is the fecal mite, which forms cysticercus-like cysts in its body. The second intermediate hosts are snakes, frogs, birds and rodents. Tetrachous larvae are formed in their bodies, which are mostly found in the abdominal cavity or liver, lungs and other organs of the second intermediate host. After being swallowed by the final host, the tetrazoa larvae become adults after 16 to 20 days.
(3) Taenia alveolar (Taenia marginalis) has a body length of 75-500 cm, with wide and short front segments, and gradually lengthening to the posterior segments. The length and width of mature segments are 10-14 mm×4-5 mm. The uterus has 5 to 10 pairs of large side branches and then branches. Each segment has a set of reproductive organs, and the genital openings alternately open irregularly on one side of the segment. The intermediate hosts are cattle, sheep, pigs and other domestic animals. The larvae are Cysticercus tenuiflora, which parasitize the liver, omentum and mesenteric of the intermediate host. Dogs are infected by swallowing the internal organs containing Cysticercus tenuis. Days develop into adults in the small intestine.
(4) Taenia leguminosa (taenia serrulata) has a body length of 60 to 200 cm, and the genital openings are irregularly open alternately on the side of the segment, slightly protruding, making the side edge of the body jagged. The length and width of mature body segments are 10-15 mm X 4-7 mm. The uterus has 8 to 14 pairs of collaterals. The intermediate hosts are rabbits and hares, and the larvae are Cysticercus leguminosa, which parasitize the liver, omentum, and mesenteric of rabbits. Dogs swallow rabbit viscera containing Cysticercus leguminosa and develop into adults after 35 to 46 days.
(5) Taenia polycephalus (taenia polycephalus) has a body length of 40-100 cm, with a width of 5 mm at its widest point. The uterus has 9-26 pairs of lateral branches. The intermediate hosts are cattle and sheep, and the larvae are polycephaly (cerebral co-cercariae), which are parasitic in the brain of the intermediate host, and sometimes also found in the oblongata or spinal cord. Dogs are infected by swallowing brains containing polycephaly, and they develop into adults after about 41 to 73 days.
(6) Echinococcus granulosus The body is composed of 1 cephalic segment and 3 to 4 segments, with a total length of no more than 7 mm. There is a set of reproductive organs in the mature segment. The length of the pregnant segment is more than half of the full length of the worm. The uterus is cystic with no collateral branches and only some protrusions. The larva of Echinococcus granulosus is hydatid, which is parasitic in the liver, lung and other organs of many animals and humans. Dogs are infected by eating organs containing hydatid.
(7) Taenia mansoni (Schistocephala monsii) is about 100 cm long. Width 2 ~ 2.5 cm. The head section is finger-shaped. There is a vertical suction groove on the back and abdomen. The neck is slender. Segments are generally wider than jumps. The length and width of the gestational egg section are almost equal. There is a set of reproductive organs in the mature segment, and there is a round male reproductive hole in the center of the front of the segment. The uterus is spirally coiled and located in the middle of the segment.
The opening of the end of the uterus and the opening of the vagina are respectively located below the male genital orifice. The body of the worm is yellow
-gray, and the central part of the somite is connected with the worm egg in a gray-black dotted line. Taenia mansoni needs two intermediate hosts: the first intermediate host is a freshwater copepod (such as Cyclops), which develops into protocercaria in its body. The second intermediate hosts are frogs and snakes (fish, birds and even humans can be used as transport hosts), which develop into sparganosis in their bodies. Cats and dogs are the terminal hosts, and sparganosis develops into adults in their small intestines.
(1) In addition to the occasional excretion of mature segments, mild infections are usually not noticeable in dogs with clinical symptoms. Appetite abnormalities (bulimia, abnormal addiction) appear in severe infections. Vomiting, chronic enteritis, diarrhea, constipation alternately, anemia, weight loss. Easily agitated or depressed, and some have cramps or paralysis of limbs. When the worms form a mass, they can block the intestines, leading to acute abdomen such as intestinal obstruction, intussusception, volvulus, and intestinal rupture.
(2) Check the tapeworm segments. If you find that there is a tapeworm pregnant segment that has not yet landed in the anus of the sick dog, and short tapeworm segments in the feces, it can help to confirm the diagnosis. The segments are white and the smallest are like rice grains. The larger one can be about 9 mm long.
(1) Therapeutic anthelmintic praziquantel 5-10 mg/kg body weight·time, orally. Or arecaine hydrobromide 2 to 4 mg/kg body weight, orally. Give the sick dog a 12-20 hour hunger strike and then give the drug. In order to prevent vomiting, dilute iodine tincture (10 ml of water, 2 drops of iodine tincture) should be given 15-20 minutes before taking the medicine; or praziquantel 5-10 mg/kg body weight·time, orally; or buparamidine hydrochloride 25-50 Mg/kg body weight, once orally, 50 mg is used to get rid of Echinococcus granulosus at an interval of 48 hours.
(2) Preventive deworming. Preventive deworming should be carried out 4 times a year (once every quarter), and breeding dogs should be carried out within 3 to 4 weeks before mating. Dogs should be isolated within a certain range when deworming, so as to collect the excreted worms and feces, thoroughly destroy them, and prevent the spread of pathogens.
(3) Pay attention to cleanliness, eliminate the source of infection, properly dispose of slaughter waste, prevent dogs from eating intermediate hosts with tapeworms or their undercooked organs, keep the kennel and dog body clean, and often use insecticides to kill Destroy fleas and lice on dogs and eliminate rodents.