Dog Diseases – Canine Trichinosis

Dog Diseases – Canine Trichinosis

Canine Trichinosis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease. It is known that more than 100 species of animals can be infected with trichinosis under natural conditions, including carnivores, omnivores, rodents, and humans. Among them, there are at least 65 species of mammals. The main domestic animals are pigs and dogs.

Pathogen and life history

Trichinella is a small white nematode with thin front and thick back. The males are 1.4 to 1.6 mm long, and the females are 3 to 4 mm long. It can barely be seen with the naked eye. Parasites on the intestinal wall of the small intestine.

The characteristic of its life history is that the same animal is both the final host and the intermediate host. When humans or animals eat the meat containing the cysts of Trichinella spiralis larvae, the cysts are digested and the larvae escape and drill into the mucosa of the human duodenum and jejunum. It takes about 1.5 to 3 days to develop into adults. After mating, the males die. The female burrows into the intestinal gland or submucosal lymphatic space to produce larvae. Most of the larvae spread throughout the body with the bloodstream. The striated muscle is the most suitable parasitic site for Trichinella larvae. The larva that has just entered the muscle fiber is straight, then rapidly grows and enlarges, gradually curls and forms a cyst. The cyst in the dog is round with a size of 0.25 to 0.3 mm x 0.4 mm, and it looks like a white needle-pointed eye. The cyst contains cyst fluid and 1 to 2 curled up larvae, up to 6 to 7 larvae individually. The cysts begin to calcify within a few months or 1-2 years, and the larvae in the calcified cysts can still survive for several years.

Diagnosis points

The main clinical manifestations of this disease are fever, muscle pain, and edema. However, the symptoms of naturally infected dogs are more difficult to detect. Diagnosis before death is more difficult. Muscle can be used for biopsy when necessary, enzyme-linked immunosorbent test or indirect hemagglutination test can also be used. After death, the diagnosis can be made based on the larvae found in the muscles. You can take a small piece of the left and right corners of the diaphragm (or psoas muscles, abdominal muscles), and then cut into 24 small pieces of wheat grains, and use thick glass slides for microscopic examination (20-50 times).

Prevention

Improve hygiene, eliminate rodents, burn the carcasses or bury them deeply. It is forbidden to discard animal carcasses and internal organs at will. On the body of Trichinella detected. Should be handled according to regulations. Raw meat fed to dogs must undergo a sanitary inspection to prove that it is free of Trichinella. Trichinella disease can be treated with albendazole at a dose of 25-40 mg/kg body weight per day, orally in 2 to 3 times, 5 to 7 days as a course of treatment.

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