Dog Diseases – Deep Mycosis

Dog Diseases – Deep Mycosis

Deep mycoses are infections caused by fungi that affect the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs. There are many types of pathogenic bacteria. These pathogenic bacteria are widely present in soil, animal feces, and milk. Dogs are mainly infected through contact with contaminated soil or through the respiratory and digestive tracts. Only a few fungi are contagious. Deep mycosis can occur in various organs in the body, and its pathological characteristics are: granulomatous inflammation, necrosis, abscess, ulcer, fistula, connective tissue hyperplasia and formation of nodules. Antibacterial drugs are widely added to feed. It may be an important cause of deep mycosis in dogs.

The main types of deep fungal diseases that can easily occur in dogs are:

1. Histoplasmosis

The pathogen is Histoplasma capsulatum, which grows in the soil. Mainly through the respiratory tract infection. Sick dogs mainly present persistent, difficult-to-curable stubborn cough and diarrhea, and no sputum discharge. Sick dogs are anorexia, weight loss, irregular fever, vomiting, dermatitis, and palpation of the abdominal wall often reveals enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. Chronic cases sometimes show ulcers on the buccal mucosa and enlarged tonsils.

When a dog is found to show incurable cough or diarrhea clinically, this disease should be considered. If possible, the intradermal test should be done with capsular histoplasmin, chest X-ray, serum complement fixation test, agar diffusion test, etc. can also be used for diagnosis.

Amphotericin B has a good curative effect on this disease. The total dosage is 4 mg/kg body weight, divided into 10 times, and injected once every 2 days. Before use, it is dissolved in water for injection, and then diluted with dextrose saline. O. 1% (mg) after intravenous injection. The total amount should not exceed 5 mg/kg body weight, otherwise it may damage the kidneys. Clotrimazole (anti-fungal No. 1) also has a good effect on this disease. The dose is 0.75 to 1.5 grams·two times orally.

2. Coccidioidomycosis

The pathogen is coccidioidomycetes. Mainly through the respiratory tract infection.

Granulomas develop in the lungs and bronchial or mediastinal lymph nodes of the sick dog, and the sick dog presents an increase in body temperature and cough. Difficulty in breathing, loss of appetite, weight loss and abdominal malaise. When it infringes on the joints. That is, lameness and muscle atrophy appear.

The disease spreads rapidly in dogs. When suspicious symptoms appear in dogs, chest X-rays should be taken, and coccidioidin intradermal test and serum complement fixation test can be done if possible.

The treatment method is the same as “histoplasmosis”.

3. Blastomycosis

The pathogen is Blastomyces dermatitis.

The disease can be divided into two types: systemic type and skin type. The systemic type is mainly manifested as lung disease, the sick dog is depressed, fever, anorexia, weight loss and cough. When the dead dog was necropsied, there were nodules and abscesses in all lobes of the lungs, and the lungs showed grayish white or light red markings with focal or diffuse cirrhosis. The center of the granuloma nodules is necrotic but not calcified. The lesion spreads around
At times, the bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes can be enlarged, suppurated, and even cause pleurisy. Cutaneous blastomycosis manifests as single or multiple skin granulomas, and finally liquefaction and necrosis and ulcers occur in the center.

The uncalcified nodules or hardening of the lungs seen on the chest X-ray can help the diagnosis of the disease. It is best to do a biopsy of the skin nodules. During microscopic examination from pus and sputum. The diagnosis can be confirmed when single or budding spherical cells are found and the cell walls are thick and refractive (double-layer outline).

Once the disease spreads, it is difficult to cure. Amphotericin B can be used in the early treatment. Surgical removal of skin nodules can be performed.

4. Cryptococcosis

The pathogen is Cryptococcus neoformans. It exists in soil and can be separated from soil, bird droppings, fruits and milk. Canine cryptococcosis mainly affects the brain, meninges, paranasal sinuses, lungs, spleen, muscles, joints, skin and other parts, causing movement disorders, circling movements, abnormal behaviors, claudication, hyperesthesia, and rhinorrhea. At necropsy, there were small purulent foci in the paranasal sinuses, turbinate bones, nasal cavity, and brain, and mucopurulent inflammation of the meninges. Inferior granulomas can be seen in the ears, eyelids, and feet. L When it is clinically found that a sick dog has unexplained respiratory and central nervous system symptoms, the possibility of cryptococcosis should be considered. If further pathogen examination, serological test and histopathological examination can be done, it will help to confirm the diagnosis of this disease.

The treatment method is the same as “histoplasmosis”.

5. Sporotrichosis

The pathogen is Sporothrix schenckii. Infected by trauma.

The lesions mainly invade the skin, often occur in the extremities, and spread along the lymphatic vessels, forming a typical band-like swelling. The primary site is a solid, inelastic, movable, and non-tender nodules or granulomas. After the nodules are covered with hair, exudates can be seen, and after drying, they will form scabs, and some nodules can form Abscess. Ulcers are formed after ulceration.

Based on the above symptoms, the disease can be suspected. In order to confirm the diagnosis, the disease material can be taken from the unulcerated abscess, and isolated and cultured. If the pathogenic bacteria are isolated, the diagnosis can be confirmed.

Iodide has a special effect on this disease. Potassium iodide can be taken orally, the daily amount is 4.4 mg/kg body weight. Sodium iodide can also be injected intravenously. Oral griseofulvin at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight·day for 2 to 3 weeks. O·2% iodine solution (plus 2% potassium iodide) can be used to warm the skin ulcers. Local application of 5% to 10% potassium iodide ointment can often receive good results.

6. Candidiasis

The pathogen is Candida albicans. It is often found in the digestive tract of healthy animals. Young and weak, especially animals that have been fed antibacterial additives for a long time or treated with antibiotics for a long time. All are susceptible to infection.

The clinical feature of sick dogs is the formation of a large or several small raised soft spots on the mucosa of the oral cavity and esophagus. The surface of the soft spot is covered with a yellow-white pseudo-membrane, which reveals a hyperemic surface that is easy to bleed after being peeled off.

For sick dogs with the above symptoms, scrape specimens from the membrane and skin lesions for microscopic examination. If yeast cells and tangled mycelium are found, the diagnosis can be confirmed.

Early detection and early treatment are of great significance to improve the efficacy, and the treatment methods can be referred to. Histoplasmosis”. In order to prevent this disease, the most important thing is to remove various inducements. If you use antibacterial additives for a long time, you should stop feeding. If you use antibacterial agents for too long, you should stop using them to avoid the growth of Candida. Nystatin can also be taken orally from time to time, at a dose of 600,000 to 1 million units/day, for 5 to 7 days.

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