Dog Diseases – Leptospirosis
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease, dogs are also very susceptible to this disease, it occurs in all countries in the world. The pathogen is Leptospira. Because of the different types of infection. The clinical characteristics are also different: some symptoms are obvious, the dogs show high fever, mucosal hemorrhage, jaundice, ulcers or necrosis, and hemoglobinuria; some cases show a recessive course and lack obvious clinical symptoms.
There are no fewer than dozens of types of Leptospira. Canine type is the most common, followed by jaundice hemorrhagic type and Pomona type. Almost all warm-blooded animals can be infected, and can exist in the infected animals for a long time, becoming the main storage host. For example, after rodents are infected, most of them are healthy carriers who carry the bacteria for a long time and can excrete bacteria through urine. And become an important source of infection. Pigs and dogs in domestic animals are also important sources of infection. Bacteria-carrying animals can excrete bacteria in the urine and pollute water and soil. When dogs come into contact with these bacteria-infected water, soil or urine, they can be infected through damaged skin, mucous membranes and digestive tract. The possibility of infection through sexual intercourse is very high, because male dogs have the habit of sniffing and licking their own or female dogs genitals with their nose and tongue.
(1) Epidemic characteristics The occurrence of the disease is mostly closely related to contact with the urine of sick dogs or mice with bacteria. Male dogs usually have more disease, young dogs have more disease than old dogs, often sporadic.
(2) Clinical characteristics The clinical manifestations of sick dogs have the following characteristics:
First, dogs with jaundice-hemorrhagic Leptospira start to have a high fever, but the temperature drops to room temperature or below the next day. Soon jaundice appeared on the conjunctiva and oral mucosa. The sick dog has weak constitution, loss of appetite, vomiting, depression, and weakness of limbs (especially hind limbs). Decreased urine output. It is yellow-red, sometimes mixed with blood in the stool.
Second, the sick dog caused by Leptospira canine has no obvious symptoms of jaundice, and usually presents with vomiting, discharge of bloody stool, abdominal pain, foul smell in the mouth, mucosal ulcers, tongue necrosis, and ulceration. The waist is sensitive to pressure, and the urine contains a lot of protein and bile pigment. Dogs often die of uremia.
(3) Necropsy features are usually characterized by jaundice, bleeding of various organs, necrosis of the gastrointestinal tract membrane, increased ascites, and often mixed with blood, small bleeding spots in the intestinal mucosa, hepatomegaly, and the gallbladder is full of blood. Bile.
Based on the above characteristics, a preliminary diagnosis can be made. The diagnosis depends on pathogenic tests and serological examinations.
First, avoid contact between dogs and bacteria-carrying animals (especially pigs and mice) and water and feed contaminated by their urine. The polluted environment can be disinfected with 2% to 5% bleach solution, or 2% sodium hydroxide, or 3% lysol.
second. Repellent and exterminate rats.
Third, it is strictly forbidden to feed sick animal meat and raw meat from animals with bacteria and their products.
Fourth, the larger dog group shall be quarantined once a year, and if sick dogs and suspected infected dogs are found, they should be quarantined in time. Penicillin and streptomycin have a good effect on this disease. Especially in the early application, the effect is better. However, it must be treated continuously for 3 to 5 days to eliminate Leptospira in the kidney.
Fifth, take drug prevention. At present, it is possible to inject a hexagram of a monovalent Leptospira vaccine combined with other vaccines, which can be vaccinated for dogs, but the vaccine must include the main local epidemic bacteria types. Such as sterile seedlings. Drugs can be used for prevention during epidemics, that is, adding oxytetracycline (0.75 to 1.5 grams per kilogram of feed) or tetracycline (1 to 1.5 mg/kg body weight) in the feed, even Feeding for 7 days can control the dog’s infection.
Sixth, people who raise sick dogs. Stop contacting healthy dogs.