Dog Diseases – Nocardiosis
Nocardiosis is an infectious disease caused by Nocardi bacteria, which is mainly characterized by local skin cellulitis. Nocardiosis is also called actinomycetes or streptomyces. Therefore, Nocardiosis is also called streptomycosis, pseudoactinomycosis or actinomycosis.
(1) Epidemiological characteristics The disease is mainly caused by skin trauma infection, and a few cases can also be infected through the respiratory tract. In addition to dogs, economic animals such as cats, silver foxes, weasels, and otters can also be infected.
(2) Clinical features In some cases, cellulitis and swelling of the corresponding lymph nodes mainly occur in the limbs, under the ears or neck. The abscess contains a turbid, gray or brownish red pus, which can be seen in the needle-large bacterial clump. The abscess has mild pain locally and can slowly expand to the surrounding area. The abscess healed immediately after rupture, but new abscesses occurred in other parts. In addition to local skin lesions, exudative pleurisy and peritonitis can often occur secondary or alone, and bronchial pneumonia may also occur. When the lymph nodes in the thoracic cavity are enlarged, they often cause difficulty in swallowing due to compression of the esophagus.
(3) In addition to skin lesions, pathological necropsy features are more common in thoracic cavity, with gray-red purulent exudate in the chest cavity and fibrin on the pleura. There are many small gray-yellow or gray-red nodules with miliary grains to the size of pea, or plaque-like consolidation lesions in the lungs. Sometimes hard or soft nodules can be seen in other organs.
Based on the above symptoms and lesions, a preliminary diagnosis can be made. In the final diagnosis, pus or pleural exudate smear microscopy should be taken.
There is no specific vaccine to prevent this disease. The main purpose is to clean the skin and the kennel to prevent trauma. If trauma is found, apply purple syrup or tincture of iodine in time. For mild cases that only occur on the skin of the body, only surgical treatment of the abscess can be cured. If sulfa drugs can be used in conjunction, the efficacy can be improved, but the dosage should be sufficient and the course of treatment should be long. Commonly used drugs include compound trimethoprim, minocycline (dosage 3 mg/kg body weight·time, twice a day), doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, etc., all of which have strong effects on this bacteria Antibacterial effect. Sulfonamides can also be used in combination with ampicillin. At the same time of treatment, surgical treatments such as abscess drainage and necrotic tissue removal must be combined.