Dog Diseases – Rabies
Rabies can be infected by humans and various animals, and its pathogen is rabies virus. Sick dogs mainly showed manic restlessness and confusion, attacked humans and animals, and finally died of paralysis. Therefore, it is also called mad dog disease.
Rabies virus mainly exists in the brain tissue and spinal cord of sick animals. There are also a lot of viruses in the salivary glands and saliva of sick dogs. And excreted with saliva to the body. The virus can be contained in the saliva of a sick dog 10-15 days before the onset of clinical symptoms and 6-7 months after the symptom disappears. Therefore, when the animal is bitten by a sick animal, it can become infected. Some healthy dogs and cats may also contain viruses in their saliva. When they lick people or other animals, or live with people, they can also cause infections.
In addition, many wild animals, such as wolves, foxes, deer, bats, etc., can not only become ill and die, but also spread. For example, some species of bats (African vampire bats), after being infected with rabies virus, often attack humans and animals, causing them to become infected. Air polluted by respiratory secretions and urine can also cause respiratory infections in humans and animals. Wild animals can be infected through the digestive tract due to eating sick carcasses. It can be seen that there are many ways to infect rabies, unlike in the past, it is only through bites.
(1) Epidemiological characteristics The disease is usually in the form of sporadic, that is, there are many single cases, most of which have a history of being bitten by mad animals. Generally, there are more cases in spring and summer, which is related to the sexual activity of dogs.
(2) Clinical features The sick dog showed violent restlessness and confusion. At the beginning of the illness, the main manifestations are depression and abnormal behavior. If you don’t call out, you like to hide in the dark, you have a strange addiction, and you like gravel, wood, mud, etc., and the sick dog often licks and bites the injured area with the tongue. Soon, he was violent and restless, attacking humans and animals, and often ran aimlessly. The appearance of the sick dog is gradually becoming thinner. The mandible is drooping, and the tail is drooping and sandwiched between the hind limbs. Hoarse voice, increased salivation, and difficulty swallowing. In the later stage, the sick dog developed symptoms of paralysis, had difficulty walking, and finally died of systemic failure and respiratory paralysis. Cases with the above-mentioned typical symptoms, combined with a history of being bitten, can make a preliminary diagnosis. However, the dogs that bite are not necessarily rabies, but there are indeed a considerable number of dogs with no clinical symptoms and dogs that detoxify before they show clinical symptoms. Therefore, suspicious dogs who have bitten humans or animals should not be killed immediately. They should be captured and kept under quarantine for at least two weeks. If they do not show symptoms within 2 weeks, the quarantine can be lifted if it is not rabies. If there are clinical symptoms, it is best to wait for a necropsy after natural death. If the stomach is empty or full of foreign bodies, the gastric mucosa is obviously inflamed, and there are no specific changes in other organs, a dog brain should be taken and sent to the laboratory. Specific tests, such as Negi’s body test in nerve cells, fluorescent antibodies, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), to find out whether there is rabies virus in brain tissue. The brain tissue suspension can also be inoculated to rabbits or mice to make a diagnosis.
First, domestic dogs should be vaccinated regularly. At present, there are two kinds of rabies vaccines produced in China, namely rabies vaccines and rabies attenuated cell freeze-dried vaccines. rabies vaccine. The dosage for dogs is: 3 ml for a weight of less than 4 kilograms, and 5 ml for a weight of more than 4 kilograms. Animals bitten by sick dogs should be vaccinated immediately. In this case, only one vaccination is not enough, and two vaccination should be done at an interval of 3 to 5 months. The vaccinated dogs can get half a year of immunity. Another vaccine is a freeze-dried vaccine with attenuated rabies cells. Before use, it should be diluted with sterile water for injection or physiological saline according to the amount specified on the bottle label. After shaking, 1 ml per dog will be injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly regardless of the size. Can get 1 year of immunization period. No matter what kind of vaccine is vaccinated, dogs generally have no adverse reactions, and sometimes swelling occurs at the injection site and disappears quickly. However, these two vaccines are not suitable for bitches and puppies who are frail, in labor or after delivery. Dogs within 7 days after the injection should avoid overtraining and pay attenti
on to their health. Canine 5-linked vaccine (which contains rabies vaccine) can also be injected.
Second, we must strengthen quarantine. When dogs that have not been vaccinated enter the country, in addition to strengthening isolation and observation, they must be vaccinated in time, otherwise they are prohibited from entering the country. Unmanned wild dogs and other wild animals, especially wild dogs in the affected area, should be culled.
Third, sick dogs and animals with clinical symptoms should be culled immediately and should not be treated. The corpse should be buried deep and not allowed to be eaten.
The dog that has just been bitten should be treated promptly. The therapeutic effect depends on the treatment time and whether the local treatment is thorough. At the time of bite, let local bleeding first, and then thoroughly wash the wound with soapy water to eliminate the virus in the local tissue, and then treat it with 0.1% mercuric solution or alcohol, iodine, etc. If there is rabies immune serum, inject it at points around the wound (the dosage is per The kilogram body weight is calculated as 1.5 milliliters, and it is better to finish the injection within 72 hours after the bite). If there is no serum, the vaccine should be used for emergency vaccination in time.
Fourth, for the bitten person, the wound should be rinsed thoroughly with 20% soapy water and treated with 3% iodine, and the rabies vaccine should be vaccinated in time (the first, third, seventh, fourteenth, and thirty days of each injection 1 time, and then 1 injection at the 40th and 50th day), the prevention and treatment effect can often be achieved.