Symptoms and treatment of canine polycystic kidney disease.

Symptoms and treatment of canine polycystic kidney disease.

Overview

Refers to the fact that most of the normally differentiated renal parenchyma is replaced by multiple cysts; cysts occur in the nephron and collecting duct; both kidneys occur at the same time, which may be genetically related.

Causes

1. The cause of renal cysts is currently unclear; genetic, internal and environmental factors seem to have a certain influence on the development of the disease.

2. The endogenous factors that may have a stimulating effect on cell hyperplasia and cyst formation are: parathyroid hormone, antidiuretic hormone, adenosine cyclophosphate and endotoxin produced by intestinal microorganisms.

3. Chemical substances produced by cysts are: dibenzothiazole, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, diphenylamine, triclophenoxyacetic acid and long-acting corticosteroids.

The main symptoms

1. It is usually impossible to detect unless the cyst enlarges and causes renal failure or a significant increase in abdominal circumference; diseased animals behave normally in the initial stage of cyst occurrence.

2. Abdominal palpation may touch the kidney with uneven surface.

3. In most cases, renal cysts are not painful on palpation, but when the cysts secondary to acute infection, expansion of the capsule and pain may occur.

Diagnostic criteria

Renal fine needle aspiration can distinguish cystic kidney disease from other causes of renal enlargement.

Treatment method

1. Bacterial infections of cysts have been reported in cats. Bacteria can only be detected in urine when accompanied by pyelonephritis; when there is no bacteriuria, pain and fever occur at the same time, the infection of the kidney parenchyma should be considered.

2. Infectious cysts need to be carefully considered. Because the acidic fluid in the sac and the epithelial barrier will prevent the action of commonly used acid antibiotics (for example: penicillins and cephalosporins), it is recommended to use alkaline and fat-soluble antibiotics (for example: sulfatrimethoprim, enfloxacin) Star, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and clindamycin), because they can effectively penetrate the epithelial barrier and dissociate in the cyst cavity, thus exerting the drug effect. These drugs have been recommended for the treatment of infectious cysts in humans and can be considered for use in dogs.

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